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01-02-2011

Femme

La mammographie reste la clé du dépistage précoce

Certaines femmes refusent de faire une mammographie, car elles ont peur qu'on leur annonce un cancer. Il faut leur rappeler qu'un cancer, s'il est détecté tôt, est guéri dans la très grande majorité des cas. La mammographie demeure le seul outil de détection précoce des cancers du sein. Grâce à cette technique, 50% des cancers du sein sont désormais dépistés au stade de petite tumeur, inférieure à 2 cm, contre 15% en 1980.

Deux systèmes cohabitent actuellement : le dépistage individuel, réalisé sur prescription du médecin traitant ou du gynécologue, et le dépistage organisé, en centre spécialisé. Le dépistage organisé présente le très grand avantage d'être régulièrement évalué, puisqu'il repose sur un financement public.

Il a permis d'améliorer le parc de mammographes et de réviser les contrôles de qualité pour suivre la progression des technologies disponibles. «Avec la double lecture systématique des clichés par un radiologue spécialisé indépendant du cabinet de radiologie, ce que n'offre pas le dépistage individuel, il donne d'excellents résultats à moindre coût pour le système de santé, tout en fournissant des informations précieuses en termes de santé publique et d'amélioration des soins.

Point d'entrée du dépistage
En dehors de cette double lecture, qui permet d'identifier 8% de cancers non observés à la première lecture, les deux types de dépistage se font dans les mêmes conditions. Le radiologue peut en effet faire une échographie ou un prélèvement s'il repère une anomalie sur le cliché de mammographie.

Une échographie est ainsi réalisée pour la majorité des femmes ayant des seins denses. D'autres techniques comme l'IRM, l'angiomammographie ou la tomosynthèse peuvent être utilisées pour affiner les résultats dans certains cas, mais la mammographie restera le point d'entrée du dépistage organisé pour une population large.

Le dépistage organisé est ouvert à toutes les femmes entre 50 et 74 ans, la tranche d'âge la plus exposée au risque de cancer du sein.
Il faut continuer de convaincre les femmes de participer au dépistage pour diminuer la mortalité grâce à la détection précoce. A l'heure actuelle, plus d'une femme meurt chaque heure d'un cancer du sein.

 

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