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05-02-2011

Santé

Les résistances bactériennes Nous sommes tous concernés

Tout le monde a entendu parler des résistances bactériennes, mais peu font la relation entre ces dernières et la consommation inadaptée d'antibiotiques. Décryptage d'un phénomène qui inquiète de plus en plus la communauté médicale. Selon les spécialistes, la prise d'antibiotiques modifie toujours la flore bactérienne chez l'homme.

Ce qui peut entraîner l'émergence et/ou la sélection de bactéries résistantes aux antibiotiques. Ces dernières peuvent alors survivre jusqu'à six mois, voire davantage, généralement sans causer d'infection. Une fois installées chez un patient, ces bactéries résistantes peuvent être transmises d'homme à homme. Et cela d'autant plus facilement que la consommation inadaptée de ces médicaments est répandue.

Aujourd'hui par exemple, 16% des bactéries à l'origine d'infections urinaires comme la cystite sont résistantes aux antibiotiques. Résultat : davantage d'échecs thérapeutiques, des visites répétées chez le médecin, un temps de traitement allongé… Encore n'est-ce pas tout. Cette situation fait également peser de lourdes menaces sur un certain nombre d'actes chirurgicaux, toujours accompagnés d'une antibiothérapie de couverture.

C'est le cas de la pose des prothèses de hanche ou de genou ainsi que de la chirurgie de transplantations. La prise en charge des enfants prématurés, toutes les activités de soins intensifs sont également concernées. Sans antibiotiques efficaces, ces actes deviendraient impraticables.

 

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