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23-03-2011
Circoncision, une efficacité durable contre le VIH

Plusieurs études ont établi que la circoncision réduisait le risque de transmission du virus du Sida. Après 5 ans, cet effet serait toujours valable et plus important que la communauté médicale ne le pensait.

En 2005-2006, une étude a été menée en Ouganda sur près de  5000 hommes séronégatifs, pour évaluer l'impact de la circoncision sur la transmission du VIH.

A cette époque déjà, les résultats avaient été spectaculaires, les auteurs observant une réduction de 50% du risque de contamination chez les hommes circoncis. De nouvelles données ont été publiées cette année à la 18e Conférence sur les rétrovirus et les infections opportunistes (CROI), qui s'est  déroulée à Boston. Il en est ressorti que l'efficacité de la circoncision avait été sous-estimée. Cinq ans plus tard, en effet, il s'avère que le risque est en réalité réduit de 73% !

Désinhibition ?
Parmi les hommes qui n'avaient pas été circoncis à l'occasion de l'étude, 80% ont aujourd'hui opté pour cette solution. Se croient-ils totalement protégés au point d'abandonner l'usage du préservatif ? La proportion de ceux qui n'en n'utilisent pas ou peu a augmenté…

de la même façon dans les deux groupes. Le manque de disponibilité de ce moyen de prévention semble donc en cause, plutôt qu'une quelconque «désinhibition». Rappelons que la circoncision n'est qu'un moyen complémentaire pour prévenir l'infection à VIH : le recours au préservatif reste indispensable.

 

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