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14-05-2011

Santé

Gencives, ne laissez pas le mal s’installer

Un saignement au brossage, des gencives qui deviennent «rouge vif» ou qui tendent à se rétracter… Voilà des signes qui pourraient bien trahir une maladie parodontale. Cette pathologie ou plutôt ces pathologies touchent les tissus de soutien des dents :

la gencive, le ligament et l’os alvéolaire. Pour les éviter, il n’y a pas de miracle. Le tabac étant un facteur de risque reconnu de maladie parodontale, la première démarche est de s’en abstenir. Associez à cela une bonne hygiène bucco-dentaire et des visites régulières chez votre dentiste, et vous éviterez certainement de bien mauvaises surprises.

Les maladies parodontales ne sont pas rares, loin s’en faut. Huit adultes sur dix sont concernés, à des degrés différents. Deux causes principales à l’origine de ces affections : une hygiène bucco-dentaire défaillante – ce qui est excessivement fréquent et l’incapacité de certains patients, à lutter contre les bactéries. Cette dernière serait due, notamment,

aux différences de réponse immunitaire entre un individu et un autre. Dans le cas des maladies parodontales, les bactéries s’accumulent à la jonction de la dent et de la gencive. Il convient donc de distinguer la gingivite, qui n’atteint que la gencive, de la parodontite qui attaque les tissus de soutien de la dent.

Dans le second cas, les bactéries viennent détruire le système d’attache. Il ne faut surtout pas prendre la parodontite à la légère. Non traitée, elle peut entraîner la perte des dents. Sans compter qu’elle est susceptible de retentir sur l’ensemble de l’organisme. Augmentation des risques cardio-vasculaires, d’accouchement prématuré ne sont que quelques-uns des dangers encourus.

Quels traitements ?
Avant de parler traitement, parlons prévention, bien sûr. Celle-ci passe par un brossage régulier et des visites fréquentes (une à deux fois par an) chez le dentiste. En cas d’infection, le traitement consiste en un « assainissement des surfaces dentaires et gingivales :

détartrage, surfaçage des racines dentaires et même parfois, un recours à la chirurgie pour accéder aux gencives et les nettoyer. Le premier traitement repose sur… une meilleure information du public. Une information sur les risques mais aussi le fait que la maladie parodontale n’est pas une fatalité.

 

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