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22-07-2011

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Les anomalies chromosomiques à l'origine des fausses couches

Les anomalies chromosomiques sont souvent à l'origine d'avortement spontané. En voici les principales raisons. Les anomalies de nombre : des paires de chromosomes en plus, triploïdies (3 fois 23 chromosomes), tétraploïdies (4 fois 23), souvent responsables des œufs clairs.

Des chromosomes en plus, trisomies (47 chromosomes) ou en moins, monosomies (45 chromosomes).Les anomalies de nombre sont dues au hasard et ne risquent donc pas de récidiver.

Les anomalies de structure : il s´agit d´atteintes de la structure même des chromosomes, résultant de lésions qui proviennent des parents. En effet, un des parents peut disposer d´un capital génétique complet, mais mal distribué.

Lorsque ses chromosomes se séparent pour créer les gamètes, ovule ou spermatozoïdes, il peut se livrer un «jeu» incomplet, c´est un peu le hasard de la division. Ces anomalies risquent donc de se répéter aux prochaines tentatives. Les anomalies de la cavité utérine : la cavité peut avoir des particularités qui font qu´elle ne favorise pas le développement de l´œuf.

Certaines anomalies sont congénitales :
– un utérus mal développé
– un utérus divisé en deux par une cloison
– un utérus déformé par le Distilbène, un médicament pris par la mère de la patiente lorsqu'elle même était enceinte. Cette hormone synthétique s'est révélée être la cause de malformations et de cancers de l'appareil génital féminin des fœtus qui y avaient été exposés.

Les causes hormonales
L´hypothyroïdie ou le diabète peuvent être à l'origine d'avortements spontanés. On évoque également des déficits en hormones sexuelles, en particulier en progestérone.

 


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